Although radiology screening is proved to be a vital step for cancer detection in many applications, human errors stay as a significant issue in this process. Missing cases and over-diagnosis can have serious outcomes and increase mortality rate. In this dissertation, we propose novel machine learning algorithms for high-risk medical imaging applications. Specifically, we tackle current challenges in radiology screening process and introduce cutting-edge methods for image-based diagnosis, detection and segmentation. We incorporate expert knowledge through eye-tracking, making the whole process human-centered.
This dissertation contributes to machine learning, computer vision, and medical imaging research by: 1) introducing a mathematical formulation of radiologists level of attention, and sparsifying their gaze data for a better extraction and comparison of search patterns. 2) proposing novel, local and global, image analysis algorithms. Imaging based diagnosis and pattern analysis are “high-risk” Artificial Intelligence applications. A standard radiology screening procedure includes detection, diagnosis and measurement (often done with segmentation) of abnormalities. We hypothesize that having a true collaboration is essential for a better control mechanism, in such applications. In this regard, we propose to form a collaboration medium between radiologists and machine learning algorithms through eye-tracking. Further, we build a generic platform consisting of novel machine learning algorithms for each of these tasks.